script conversion systems

System Name: un-ara-Arab-Latn-2017

Authority IDun
System ID2017
Source ScriptArab
Destination ScriptLatn
NameRomanization of Arabic -- Unified Arabic Transliteration System (2017)
DescriptionThe current United Nations recommended romanization system was approved in 2017 (resolution XI/3), based on the system adopted by Arabic experts at the conference held in Beirut in 2007, the Unified Arabic Transliteration System, taking into account the practical amendments and corrections carried out and agreed upon by the representatives of the Arabic- speaking countries at the Fourth Arab Conference on Geographical Names, held in Beirut in 2008, and some clarifications and amendments agreed in Riyadh in 20171. Previously, the United Nations had approved a romanization system in 1972 (resolution II/8), based on the system adopted by Arabic experts at the conference held at Beirut in 1971 with the practical amendments carried out and agreed upon by the representatives of the Arabic-speaking countries at their conference. The table was published in volume II of the conference report. In UN resolution XI/3 it is specifically stated that the system was recommended for the “romanization of the geographical names within those Arabic-speaking countries where this system is officially adopted”. There is evidence of its partial implementation in Jordan, Oman and Saudi Arabia. The UNGEGN Working Group on Romanization Systems intends to continue monitoring the UN system’s implementation across Arabic-speaking countries. In some countries there exist local romanization schemes or practices. The geographical names of Algeria, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia are generally rendered in the traditional manner which conforms to the principles of the French orthography. The previous UN-approved system is still found in considerable international usage. Arabic is written from right to left. The Arabic script usually omits vowel points and diacritical marks from writing which makes it difficult to obtain uniform results in the romanization of Arabic. It is essential to identify correctly the words which appear in any particular name and to know the standard Arabic-script spelling including the relevant vowels. One must also take into account dialectal and idiosyncratic deviations. The romanization is generally reversible though there may be some ambiguous letter sequences (dh, kh, sh, th) which may also point to combinations of Arabic characters in addition to the respective single characters.
  • Parallel
  • any (a0061 to ￿ffff)
    before: boundary, not before: boundary + any (2018, 2019, '0027)
  • 0020A0041t0074 0020T0054
    0020a0061t0074 0020T0054
  • 0020A0041t0074h0068 0020T0054h0068
    0020a0061t0074h0068 0020t0074h0068
  • 0020A0041d0064 0020D0044
    0020a0061d0064 0020D0044
  • 0020A0041d0064h0068 0020D0044h0068
    0020a0061d0064h0068 0020D0044h0068
  • 0020A0041r0072 0020R0052
    0020a0061r0072 0020R0052
  • 0020A0041z007a 0020Z005a
    0020a0061z007a 0020Z005a
  • 0020A0041s0073 0020S0053
    0020a0061s0073 0020S0053
  • 0020A0041s0073h0068 0020S0053h0068
    0020a0061s0073h0068 0020S0053h0068
  • 0020A0041s0073̱0331 0020S0053̱0331
    0020a0061s0073̱0331 0020S0053̱0331
  • 0020A0041d0064̱0331 0020D0044̱0331
    0020a0061d0064̱0331 0020D0044̱0331
  • 0020A00411e6f 00201e6e
    0020a00611e6f 00201e6e
  • 0020A0041d0064͟035fh0068 0020D0044͟035fh0068
    0020a0061d0064͟035fh0068 0020D0044͟035fh0068
  • 0020A0041l006c 0020L004c
    0020a0061l006c 0020L004c
  • 0020A0041n006e 0020N004e
    0020a0061n006e 0020N004e
  • 0020A0041l006c 0020
    0020a0061l006c 0020