script conversion systems

System Name: un-ara-Arab-Latn-1972

Authority IDun
System ID1972
Source ScriptArab
Destination ScriptLatn
NameRomanization of Arabic -- UNGEGN (1972)
DescriptionThe United Nations recommended romanization system was approved in 1972 (resolution II/8), based on the system adopted by Arabic experts at the conference held at Beirut in 1971 with the practical amendments carried out and agreed upon by the representatives of the Arabic-speaking countries at their conference. The table was published in volume II of the conference report1 . In the UN resolution it was specifically pointed out that the system was recommended "for the romanization of the geographical names within those Arabic-speaking countries where this system is officially acknowledged". It cannot be definitely ascertained which of the Arabicspeaking countries have adopted this system officially, especially since 2007 when there are efforts by the Arabic Division to promote a modification of the UN system (ADEGN romanization, see the section on other romanization systems below), with varying success2 . Judging by the use of names in international cartographic products which rely mostly on national sources it appears that the UN system or its modification is more or less current in Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia3 , United Arab Emirates and Yemen, there and in some other countries the system is often used without diacritical marks. For the geographical names of the Syrian Arab Republic international maps favour the UN system while the local usage seems to prefer a French-oriented romanization. Also in Egypt and Sudan there exist local romanization schemes or practices side by side with the UN system. The geographical names of Algeria, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia are generally rendered in the traditional manner which conforms to the principles of the French orthography. Resolution 7 of the Seventh UN Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names (1998) recommended that "the League of Arab States should, through its specialized structures, continue its efforts to organize a conference with a view to considering the difficulties encountered in applying the amended Beirut system of 1972 for the romanization of Arabic script, and submit, as soon as possible, a solution to the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names". At the Eighth UN Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names (2002), the Arabic Division of the UN Group of Experts announced that it had finalised proposed modifications to the UN recommended romanization system. These proposals would be submitted to the League of Arab States for approval. Arabic is written from right to left. The Arabic script usually omits vowel points and diacritical marks from writing which makes it difficult to obtain uniform results in the romanization of Arabic. It is essential to identify correctly the words which appear in any particular name and to know the standard Arabic- script spelling including proper pointing. One must also take into account dialectal and idiosyncratic deviations. The romanization is generally reversible though there are some ambiguous letter sequences (dh, kh, sh, th) which may also point to combinations of Arabic characters in addition to the respective single characters.
  • Parallel
  • Run un-ara-Arab-Latn-2017
  • 0020A0041ş015f 0020Ş015e
    0020a0061ş015f 0020Ş015e
  • 0020A00411e11 00201e10
    0020a00611e11 00201e10
  • 0020A0041t0074̧0327 0020T0054̧0327
    0020a0061t0074̧0327 0020T0054̧0327
  • Compose