script conversion systems

System Name: odni-ara-Arab-Latn-2015

Authority IDodni
System ID2015
Source ScriptArab
Destination ScriptLatn
NameICS-630-01 Romanization of Arabic Personal Names (2015)
DescriptionThis system, adapted from the Board on Geographic Names, is the Intelligence Community (IC) standard for the transliteration of Arabic names that will be applied to all final written reports and products for IC consumers. It is not intended to eliminate variations of a name that can contribute forensic information. Rather, it is to provide an IC standard Romanized (English) transliteration from modern standard Arabic that can then be linked to forensic information in ways that will help identify the referent of the name. Ambiguities can result from the Romanization of Arabic names because the Arabic source generally omits short vowel markings, double consonant marks, and other diacritics that would clearly distinguish the name. Linguists use their experience with the language and aids such as on-line tools and name dictionaries to determine the exact Arabic and the appropriate transliteration into the Roman alphabet. In cases where an individual's name has already been transliterated, that is to be indicated -- as found -- in parentheses immediately following its rendition in the transliteration standard (e.g., Muhammad Khulud ( Mohamed Khulood)). In addition, if the original Arabic- script spelling is known, that spelling should also appear in parentheses following the name, if possible, following best practices of the issuing organization and taking into consideration information system capabilities. This convention is designed to ensure that vital forensic information is not lost. For names of persons who are known to not be part of the Arabic-speaking community, use the relevant IC transliteration standard for names from that language (e.g., Mikhail, Yitzhak). A translator’s note may be used to clarify the known origin of the person. Spell names of individuals from languages that are written in Roman letters as they are spelled in those languages (e.g., George Clooney, Jorge Garcia, Georges Pompidou). In the case of active senior government officials in the on-line CIA World Factbook and the online directory of Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments, the spellings given in these on-line reference works should be used in place of the IC Standard. For any individual who has at one time been listed in the Factbook or Chiefs of State directory but who no longer appears in those resources (i.e. is no longer a government official), the IC Standard spelling should appear first, with the spelling, if known, as it previously appeared in those resources listed within parentheses at the first usage. The primary goal of this system is to produce a consistent Romanized transcription of the name that is readable to the non- specialist. The system uses the 26 letters of the standard ( English) Roman alphabet plus the apostrophe. Some ambiguities in the Romanized form will occur without the use of diacritics. However, within the context of a report, where additional information about the individual is provided, the referent will be clearly identified. This system will be used in conjunction with on-line tools, name dictionaries, and lists containing conventional spellings of names of well-known individuals.
  • Parallel
  • any (a0061 to ￿ffff)
    before: boundary, not before: boundary + any (2018, 2019, '0027)
  • 0020A0041l006c 0020
    0020a0061l006c 0020