script conversion systems

System Name: bgnpcgn-pus-Arab-Latn-1968

Authority IDbgnpcgn
System ID1968
LanguagePushto; Pashto
Source ScriptArab
Destination ScriptLatn
NameRomanization of Pashto (1968)
DescriptionPashto is an Indo-Iranian language and is one of two nationally official languages in Afghanistan and one of five regionally recognised languages in Pakistan. The romanization system presented here may be applied to all Pashto geographical names. Although the BGN/PCGN policy for geographical names in Afghanistan is to apply the BGN/PCGN national system of romanization for Afghanistan (2007), which incorporates Dari elements, when applied to a Pashto geographical name, the romanized results of the BGN/PCGN national system for Afghanistan are the same as those of this Pashto romanization system1 . The Pashto alphabet uses a modified form of the Perso-Arabic script, and contains twelve additional consonants not present in standard Arabic, as well as three additional vowel characters and an additional vowel point. ڼ گ ښ ژ ږ ړ ډ ځ څ چ ټ پ :Consonants ٙ :Point Vowel; ې ۍ ى :Vowels The points used in Arabic to mark short vowels and certain other diacritical marks are not written in Pashto. Consequently, a reference source may sometimes be required to aid correct identification of the standard spellings and proper vowels and elimination of dialectal and idiosyncratic variations. In the interests of clarity, a column showing vowel pointing from Arabic to indicate short vowels has been included in the examples below, alongside the unpointed form that will usually be encountered. However it should be noted that the pronunciation of short vowels will vary. (Note: it is recommended that a font such as Scheherazade, available from, which includes the Unicode extended Arabic sub-range, be used to view this system2 .)
  • Run bgnpcgn-prs-Arab-Latn-2007
  • Parallel
  • any (a0061 to ￿ffff)
    before: boundary, not before: boundary + any (2018, 2019, '0027, -002d)
  • 0020U0055t0074 0020T0054
    0020u0075t0074 0020T0054
  • 0020U0055s0073̄0304 0020S0053̄0304
    0020u0075s0073̄0304 0020S0053̄0304
  • 0020U0055d0064 0020D0044
    0020u0075d0064 0020D0044
  • 0020U0055z007ā0304 0020Z005ā0304
    0020u0075z007ā0304 0020Z005ā0304
  • 0020U0055r0072 0020R0052
    0020u0075r0072 0020R0052
  • 0020U0055z007a 0020Z005a
    0020u0075z007a 0020Z005a
  • 0020U0055s0073 0020S0053
    0020u0075s0073 0020S0053
  • 0020A0041s0073 0020S0053
    0020u0075s0073 0020S0053
  • 0020U0055s0073h0068 0020S0053h0068
    0020u0075s0073h0068 0020S0053h0068
  • 0020U0055ş015f 0020Ş015e
    0020u0075ş015f 0020Ş015e
  • 0020U00551e95 00201e94
    0020u00751e95 00201e94
  • 0020U0055ţ0163 0020Ţ0162
    0020u0075ţ0163 0020Ţ0162
  • 0020U0055z007a̧0327 0020Z005a̧0327
    0020u0075z007a̧0327 0020Z005a̧0327
  • 0020U0055l006c 0020L004c
    0020u0075l006c 0020L004c
  • 0020U0055n006e 0020n006e
    0020u0075n006e 0020N004e
  • Compose