script conversion systems

System Name: bgnpcgn-prs-Arab-Latn-2007

Authority IDbgnpcgn
System ID2007
Source ScriptArab
Destination ScriptLatn
NameNational Romanization System for Afghanistan (2007)
DescriptionThis romanization system agreed by BGN and PCGN in November 2007, accommodates the linguistic complexity of Afghanistan as manifest in its geographical names. The following tabulation shows the original Perso-Arabic script with accompanying Unicode value (columns 1a and b), the Yaghoubi romanization (column 2), the BGN/PCGN romanization with accompanying Unicode value (columns 3a and b), an English phonetic example (column 4), and an example toponym (columns 5b and c). [The Yaghoubi romanization system was developed in 1959 by Muzaffarud Din Yaqubi (commonly seen as Yaghoubi). It is a native official system designed to reflect Afghan names, both Dari and Pashto, and both pronunciation and genuine linguistic truth.] The tables function as both a romanization system for Afghanistan (i.e. with access to the original script, these tables can be applied to get a standardized Roman result - moving from columns 1 to 3) and as a means of converting the available Yaghoubi Roman-script spellings, as appear on the Fairchild Aerial Surveys map series, to standard BGN/PCGN spellings (moving from columns 2 to 3). The points used in Arabic to mark short vowels and certain other diacritical marks are infrequently written in Afghanistan. Consequently, a reference source may sometimes be required to aid correct identification of the standard spellings and proper vowels and elimination of dialectal and idiosyncratic variations. In the interests of clarity, the example columns show script with vowel pointing from Arabic to indicate the short vowels that are included alongside the unpointed form that will usually be encountered. However it should be noted that the pronunciation of short vowels will vary. Note: it is recommended that a font such as Scheherazade, available from, which includes the Unicode extended Arabic sub-range, be used to view this system. [Please note that the identification of a particular font does not represent an endorsement of any specific product or manufacturer.]
  • Parallel
  • any (a0061 to ￿ffff)
    before: boundary, not before: boundary + any (2018, 2019, '0027, -002d)
  • 0020A0041t0074 0020T0054
    0020a0061t0074 0020T0054
  • 0020A0041s0073̄0304 0020S0053̄0304
    0020a0061s0073̄0304 0020S0053̄0304
  • 0020A0041d0064 0020D0044
    0020a0061d0064 0020D0044
  • 0020A0041z007ā0304 0020Z005ā0304
    0020a0061z007ā0304 0020Z005ā0304
  • 0020A0041r0072 0020R0052
    0020a0061r0072 0020R0052
  • 0020A0041z007a 0020Z005a
    0020a0061z007a 0020Z005a
  • 0020A0041s0073 0020S0053
    0020a0061s0073 0020S0053
  • 0020A0041s0073h0068 0020S0053h0068
    0020a0061s0073h0068 0020S0053h0068
  • 0020A0041ş015f 0020Ş015e
    0020a0061ş015f 0020Ş015e
  • 0020A00411e95 00201e94
    0020a00611e95 00201e94
  • 0020A0041ţ0163 0020Ţ0162
    0020a0061ţ0163 0020Ţ0162
  • 0020A0041z007a̧0327 0020Z005a̧0327
    0020a0061z007a̧0327 0020Z005a̧0327
  • 0020A0041l006c 0020L004c
    0020a0061l006c 0020L004c
  • 0020A0041n006e 0020N004e
    0020a0061n006e 0020N004e
  • 0020A0041l006c 0020
    0020a0061l006c 0020
  • Compose