script conversion systems

System Name: bgnpcgn-ara-Arab-Latn-1956

Authority IDbgnpcgn
System ID1956
Source ScriptArab
Destination ScriptLatn
NameRomanization of Arabic (1956)
Description This System was adopted by the BGN in 1946 and by the PCGN in 1956 and is applied by BGN and PCGN in the systematic romanization of Arabic geographical names in Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Uniform results in the romanization of Arabic are difficult to obtain, since vowel points and diacritical marks are generally omitted from both handwriting and printed script. It follows that for correct identification of the words which appear in any particular name, knowledge of its standard Arabic-script spelling including proper pointing, and recognition of dialectal and idiosyncratic deviations are essential. In order to bring about uniformity in the Roman-script spelling of geographical names in Arabic-language areas, the system is based insofar as possible on fully pointed Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). In the interest of clarity, vowel pointing to indicate short vowels has been applied to the examples given below, and examples of the, more usual, unpointed script have also been provided; it should also be noted that the dots which occur on some characters of the Arabic script are not vowels but rather are an integral part of the base consonant. Arabic script is written from right to left, and does not make a distinction between upper and lower case.
  • Parallel
  • any (a0061 to ￿ffff)
    before: boundary, not before: boundary + any (2018, 2019)
  • 0020A0041t0074 0020T0054
    0020a0061t0074 0020T0054
  • 0020A0041t0074h0068 0020T0054h0068
    0020a0061t0074h0068 0020t0074h0068
  • 0020A0041d0064 0020D0044
    0020a0061d0064 0020D0044
  • 0020A0041d0064h0068 0020D0044h0068
    0020a0061d0064h0068 0020D0044h0068
  • 0020A0041r0072 0020R0052
    0020a0061r0072 0020R0052
  • 0020A0041z007a 0020Z005a
    0020a0061z007a 0020Z005a
  • 0020A0041s0073 0020S0053
    0020a0061s0073 0020S0053
  • 0020A0041s0073h0068 0020S0053h0068
    0020a0061s0073h0068 0020S0053h0068
  • 0020A0041ş015f 0020Ş015e
    0020a0061ş015f 0020Ş015e
  • 0020A00411e11 00201e10
    0020a00611e11 00201e10
  • 0020A0041t0074̧0327 0020T0054̧0327
    0020a0061t0074̧0327 0020T0054̧0327
  • 0020A0041z007a̧0327 0020Z005a̧0327
    0020a0061z007a̧0327 0020Z005a̧0327
  • 0020A0041l006c 0020L004c
    0020a0061l006c 0020L004c
  • 0020A0041n006e 0020N004e
    0020a0061n006e 0020N004e
  • 0020A0041l006c 0020
    0020a0061l006c 0020
  • Compose